Faculty of Science

Land Ecosystem Atmosphere Program (LEAP)

howard pano

This project aims to understand the effects of fire on heat, moisture and carbon dioxide fluxes in Australia's tropical savannas.

Details can be found by clicking HERE . The project is closely related to Dr. Lindsay Hutleys CRC project examining the water and carbon exchanges of savannas ( https://savanna.ntu.edu.au/research/projects/carbon.html ). The tower will provide longterm measurements as part of the Ozflux network .


Data from this site is available through the international FLUXNET database or by emailing Professor Jason Beringer.


This site is produced by the Climate Group, School of Geography and Environmental Science and proudly part of the Australian Flux Network (OzFlux) and the Australian NCRIS Terrestral Ecosystem Research Network (TERN).

Further information



Howard Springs flux tower data


Howard Springs flux tower data


Howard Springs flux tower data


Howard Springs flux tower data


Howard Springs flux tower data


Howard Springs flux tower data Howard Springs flux tower data


Instrument Make Model Description
Open path CO2, H2O LI-COR LI-7500 23m
Sonic anemometer
- wind velocities (u,v,w)
- sonic temperature
Campbell Scientific CSAT-3 23m
Solar Radiation (incoming) Kipp and Zonen CM-7B 23m
Solar Radiation (reflected) Kipp and Zonen CG-2 23m
Atmospheric Pressure LI-COR LI-7500 23m
Soil Heat Flux (2 replicates) Campbell Scientific HFT3 Ground, -15 cm
Soil moisture Campbell Scientific CS616 10-100cm
Temperature and Relative Humidity Vaisala HMP45A 2m, 23m
Rain Gauge Campbell Scientific TB3 Ground
Data Loggers Campbell Scientific CR-3000
Power Supply
- 12V DC EC flux station
Kyocera Solar panels (3) (BP) Ground

Live camera

Howard live camera


Howard MODIS data

The data was obtained from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center for Biogeochemical Dynamics (ORNL DAAC) (https://daac.ornl.gov/MODIS/).
The ORNL DAAC provides MODIS Land Product Subsets for model validation, site characterisation and remote-sensing purposes.

Daily updated data was obtained from this provider, with an area of 3x3km extracted using Python script written by Mr. Darien Pardinas-Diaz ([email protected]).
The plots were produced using QC Filter Conditions 000 and 001. Condition 000 represents the highest QC Filter possible and 001 represents a reliable and usable QC Filter,
though not to the standard of 000.


Howard Springs flux tower data